Rome is the city of the Popes, but it was once also the city of the Fascists. Mussolini’s regime left a considerable mark on the city in the form of architecture, monuments, and large urban projects. Since the fall of Fascism at end of the Second World War, Romans have faced the question of what to do with the physical traces of the regime, and whether to preserve, demolish, alter, or renovate its buildings and monuments. Fascist sites represent a difficult heritage that elicits divisive and painful memories, but which is also too important to be ignored. Under Fascism, Italian architecture enjoyed a period of innovation and experimentation that benefited from the influences of both classicism and modernism. Today, as the rule of a far-Right government fuels anxieties around the lasting impact of Fascism, this reawakens questions about how to handle material legacies of the Fascist dictatorship.